From DNA to protein – 3D



here is a cell the basic unit of all
living tissue in most human cells there
is a structure called a nucleus the
nucleus contains the genome
in humans the genome is split between 23
pairs of chromosomes each chromosome
contains a long strand of DNA tightly
packaged around proteins called histones
within the DNA are sections called genes
these genes contain the instructions for
making proteins when a gene is switched
on an enzyme called RNA polymerase
attaches to the start of the gene it
moves along the DNA making a strand of
messenger RNA out of free bases in the
nucleus the DNA code determines the
order in which the free bases are added
to the messenger RNA this process is
called transcription
before the messenger RNA can be used as
a template for the production of
proteins it needs to be processed this
involves removing and adding sections of
RNA the messenger RNA then moves out of
the nucleus into the cytoplasm protein
factories in the cytoplasm called
ribosomes bind to the messenger RNA the
ribosome reads the code in the messenger
RNA to produce a chain made up of amino
acids there are 20 different types of
amino acid transfer RNA molecules carry
the amino acids to the ribosome the
messenger RNA is read 3 bases at a time
as each triplet is read a transfer RNA
delivers the corresponding amino acid
this is added to a growing chain of
amino acids once the last amino acid has
been added the chain folds into a
complex 3d shape to form the protein
(Auto generated transcript)


This 3D animation shows how proteins are made in the cell from the information in the DNA code.

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Author: dhobson